Respostas Populistas à Crise do Coronavírus: Análise dos Twitters de Donald Trump e Jair Bolsonaro
PDF

Keywords

Brazil
coronavirus
Covid-19
United States
populism
Twitter

How to Cite

Vieira Costa, A., & Bernardi, A. J. (2021). Respostas Populistas à Crise do Coronavírus: Análise dos Twitters de Donald Trump e Jair Bolsonaro. Political Observer | Revista Portuguesa De Ciência Política, (14). https://doi.org/10.33167/2184-2078.RPCP2020.14/pp.81-103

Abstract

The coronavirus pandemic has suddenly and fast emerged, bringing new challenges on a global scale. Brazil and the United States have been for months the two countries with most cases and deaths by Covid-19 in the world, until India surpassed Brazil, and only on the number of cases. Therefore, there are similarities in the way their presidents have been dealing with the crisis. Donald Trump and Jair Bolsonaro have been in standout on international media by their poor leadership in face of the crises created by the pandemic. Both presidents have politicized the crisis, standing against scientific evidence and world recommendations. Contrary to social isolation, they have antagonized governors and mayors, intensifying conflicts despite the lost lives, disqualifying the media as fake news. Given that, this paper aims to analyse how the populist leaders, in Brazil and in the United States, have responded to the coronavirus crisis in terms of actions and discourses. For this purpose, we analyse tweets from both their official Twitter accounts, on the period from the first official recorded case until the milestone of 100 thousand deaths in each country.

https://doi.org/10.33167/2184-2078.RPCP2020.14/pp.81-103
PDF

References

Al Jazeera. (2020a). Timeline: How the new coronavirus spread. Al Jazeera, 13 de maio de 2020. <https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/01/timeline-china-coronavirus-spread-200126061554884.html>.

Al Jazeera. (2020b). A timeline of the Trump administration’s coronavirus actions. Al Jazeera, 23 de abril de 2020. <https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/04/timeline-trump-administration-coronavirus-actions-200414131306831.html>.

Andrade, H. (2020). Bolsonaro “monta” cenário para divulgar hidroxicloroquina em evento. UOL, 15 de julho de 2020. <https://noticias.uol.com.br/politica/ultimas-noticias/2020/07/15/bolsonaro-monta-cenario-e-usa-evento-do-planalto-para-divulgar-medicamento.htm>

Bitar, S. & Zovatto, D. (2020). The impact of the coronavirus in Latin America’s future. International Idea Institute News, 2 de abril de 2020. <https://www.idea.int/news-media/news/impact-coronavirus-latin-america-future>.

Carothers, T. (2020). The United States: Presidential Leadership, Polarization, and the Coronavirus. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 28 de abril de 2020.

Carvalho, R. & Costa, F. (2020). Covid-19: Bolsonaro incentivou carreata contra isolamento social em Manaus. Uol Notícias, 30 de abril de 2020. <https://noticias.uol.com.br/politica/ultimas-noticias/2020/04/30/covid-19-bolsonaro-incentivou-carreata-contra-isolamento-social-em-manaus.htm>.

Cohen, J. (2020). Axios|SurveyMonkey poll: perceptions of coronavirus. <https://www.surveymonkey.com/curiosity/axios-coronavirus-perception/>.

Costa, A. & Bernardi, A. (2020). Líderes populistas e a crise do coronavírus: comparações entre Estados Unidos e Brasil, Working Paper #92, Observatório Político. .

Corasaniti, N. (2020). Coronavirus Takes Over Political Advertising. The New York Times, 21 de abril de 2020. <https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/21/us/politics/coronavirus-takes-over-political-advertising.html>.

Cucolo, E. (2020). Crise do coronavírus pode tirar até R$ 500 bi do consumo. Folha de S. Paulo, 4 de maio de 2020. <https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/mercado/2020/05/crise-do-coronavirus-pode-tirar-ate-r-500-bi-do-consumo.shtml>

Falcão, M. & Vivas, F. (2020). PGR pede ao STF inquéiro para investigar Weintraub por suposto racismo contra chineses. G1, 14 de abril de 2020. <https://g1.globo.com/politica/noticia/2020/04/14/pgr-pede-ao-stf-abertura-de-inquerito-contra-weintraub-por-crime-de-racismo-contra-china.ghtml>.

Farkas, J. & Schou, J. (2018). Fake News as a Floating Signifier: Hegemony, Antagonism and the Politics of Falsehood. Journal of the European Institute for Communication and Culture, 25(3), 298-314.

Ferreira, P. & Fragelli, R. (2020). Populismo estrutural. Valor Econômico, 20 de agosto de 2020.<https://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/dspace/bitstream/handle/10438/29603/populismo-central.pdf>.

Finchelstein, F. (2020). Para una história global del populismo: rupturas y continuidades. Conhecer: Debate entre o Público e o Privado, 10(24), 12-23.

Finchelstein, F. (2017). From fascism to populism in history. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.

Folha de S. Paulo. (2020). Instagram classifica como fake news postagem sobre coronavírus compartilhada por Bolsonaro. Folha de S. Paulo, 12 de maio de 2020. <https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/poder/2020/05/instagram-classifica-como-fake-news-postagem-sobre-coronavirus-compartilhada-por-bolsonaro.shtml>.

Forgey, Q. (2020). Trump on ‘Chinese virus’ label: ‘It’s not racist at all’. Politico, 18 de março de 2020. <https://www.politico.com/news/2020/03/18/trump-pandemic-drumbeat-coronavirus-135392>.

Fuchs, C. (2018). Digital Demogogue: Authoritarian Capitalism in the Age of Trump and Twitter. Northampton: Pluto Press.

Gabler, E. & Keller, M. H. (2020). Prescriptions Surged as Trump Praised Drugs in Coronavirus Fight. The New York Times, 25 de abril de 2020. <https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/25/us/coronavirus-trump-chloroquine-hydroxychloroquine.html>.

Gabbatt, A. (2020). Protests against US stay-at-home orders gain support from rightwing figures. The Guardian, 16 de abril de 2020. <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/16/michigan-protest-coronavirus-rightwing-support>.

Gawthorpe, A. (2020). Trump’s decision to cut WHO funding is an act of international vandalism. The Guardian, 15 de abril de 2020. <https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/apr/15/trump-decision-cut-who-funding-international-vandalism-coronavirus>.

G1. (2020a). Bolsonaro discursa em Brasília para manifestantes que pediam intervenção militar. G1, 19 de abril de 2020. <https://g1.globo.com/politica/noticia/2020/04/19/bolsonaro-discursa-em-manifestacao-em-brasilia-que-defendeu-intervencao-militar.ghtml>.

G1. (2020b). Bolsonaro volta a apoiar ato antidemocrático contra o STF e o Congresso, em Brasília. G1, 3 de maio de 2020. <https://g1.globo.com/fantastico/noticia/2020/05/03/bolsonaro-volta-a-apoiar-ato-antidemocratico-contra-o-stf-e-o-congresso-em-brasilia.ghtml>.

Holland, S. (2020). Exclusive: Trump says China wants him to lose his re-election bid. Reuters, 30 de abril de 2020. <https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trump-china-exclusive/exclusive-trump-says-china-wants-him-to-lose-his-bid-for-re-election-idUSKBN-22C01F>.

Jornal Nacional. (2020). Bolsonaro pede na TV a ‘volta à normalidade’ e fim do ‘confinamento em massa’ e diz que meio de comunicação espalham ‘pavor’. G1, 24 de março de 2020. <https://g1.globo.com/politica/noticia/2020/03/24/bolsonaro-pede-na-tv-volta-a-normalidade-e-fim-do-confinamento-em-massa.ghtml>.

Levitsky, S. & Ziblatt, D. (2018). Como as Democracias Morrem. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar.

Lührmann, A., Edgell, A. B., & Maerz, S. F. (2020). Pandemic Backsliding: Does Covid-19 Put Democracy at Risk? V-Dem Policy Brief, 23.

Libório, B. & Fávero, B. (2020). Como a desinformação sobre cloroquina se multiplicou no Twitter após aval de Bolsonaro à droga. Aos Fatos, 25 de março de 2020. <https://www.aosfatos.org/noticias/como-desinformacao-sobre-cloroquina-se-multiplicou-no-twitter-apos-aval-de-bolsonaro-droga/>.

Mars, A. (2020). Trump acusa governadores democratas de atrasarem reabertura para prejudicá-lo politicamente. El País, 12 de maio de 2020. <https://brasil.elpais.com/internacional/2020-05-12/trump-acusa-governadores-democratas-de-atrasarem-reabertura-para-prejudica-lo-politicamente.html?fbclid=IwAR053OoXatV8W2ZJvp6D1KSKdrr-jYFrYwMr7x70XkqmiFMZywB5-3027xA>.

Matoso, F. & Rodrigues, M. (2020). Coronavírus: Bolsonaro diz na TV que não há razão para pânico ainda que problema se agrave. G1, 6 de março de 2020. <https://g1.globo.com/bemestar/coronavirus/noticia/2020/03/06/ainda-que-o-problema-possa-se-agravar-nao-ha-motivo-para-panico-diz-bolsonaro-sobre-coronavirus.ghtml>

Mazuí. G. (2020). Mandetta anuncia em rede social que foi demitido por Bolsonaro do Ministério da Saúde. G1, 16 de abril de 2020. <https://g1.globo.com/politica/noticia/2020/04/16/mandetta-anuncia-em-rede-social-que-foi-demitido-do-ministerio-da-saude.ghtml>

Mazzetti, M., Barnes, J. E., Wong, E., & Goldman, A. (2020). Trump Officials Are Said to Press Spies to Link Virus and Wuhan Labs. The New York Times, 30 de abril de 2020. <https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/30/us/politics/trump-administration-intelligence-coronavirus-china.html?referringSource=articleShare>

Mena, F. DeLuca, N., & Yukari, D. (2020). Em menos de 5 meses, coronavírus escreve a sua biografia em 181 países. Folha de S. Paulo, 13 de maio de 2020. <https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/mundo/2020/05>.

Mudde, C. (2020). Will the coronavirus ‘kill populism’? Don’t count on it. The Guardian, 27 de março de 2020. <https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/mar/27/coronavirus-populism-trump-politics-response>.

Mudde, C. & Kaltwasser, C. R. (2017). Populism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Murakawa, F. (2020). Bolsonaro provoca aglomeração e faz propaganda da cloroquina no Alvorada. Valor Econômico, 19 de julho de 2020. <https://valor.globo.com/brasil/noticia/2020/07/19/bolsonaro-provoca-aglomerao-e-faz-propaganda-da-cloroquina-no-alvorada.ghtml>.

New York Times. (2020). Trump attacked the W.H.O. For its handling of the coronavirus outbreak and its criticisms of his policy. The New York Times, 7 de abril de 2020. <https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/07/world/coronavirus-updates-news-live.html#link-5e3b2c82>.

Pajnik, M. & Meret, B. (2018). Populism and the web: Communicative Practices of Parties and Movements in Europe. London/New York: Routledge.

Quinnipiac University. (2020). March 9, 2020 - Biden Crushes Sanders In Democratic Race, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; More Disapprove Of Trump’s Response To Coronavirus. <https://poll.qu.edu/national/release-detail?ReleaseID=3657 https://poll.qu.edu/national/release-detail?ReleaseID=3657>.

Rachman, G. (2020). Jair Bolsonaro’s populism is leading Brazil to disaster. Financial Times, 25 de maio de 2020. <https://www.ft.com/content/c39fadfe-9e60-11ea-b65d-489c67b0d85d>.

Rosseto, G., Carreiro, R. & Almada, M. (2013). Twitter e comunicação política: limites e possibilidades. Compolítica v.3, n. 2, p.189-216.

Statista. (2020). Leading countries based on number of Twitter users as of July 2020. <https://www.statista.com/statistics/242606/number-of-active-twitter-users-in-selected-countries/>.

UN. (2020). UN tackles ‘infodemic’ of misinformation and cybercrime in COVID-19 crisis. The United Nations Department of Global Communications (DGC). <https://www.un.org/en/un-coronavirus-communications-team/un-tackling-%E2%80%98infodemic%E2%80%99-misinformation-and-cybercrime-covid-19>.

Urbinati, N. (2019). Me the people: how populism transforms democracy. London: Harvard University Press.

Urbinati, N. (2020). The Pandemic Hasn’t Killed Populism: After Lockdowns, Demagogues Will Likely Resurge. Foreign Affairs, 6 de Agosto de 2020. <https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/2020-08-06/pandemic-hasnt-killed-populism.

Uribe, G. & Daniel, C. (2020). Quem é de direita toma cloroquina, quem é de esquerda, Tubaína, diz Bolsonaro. Folha de S. Paulo, 19 de maio de 2020. <https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/equilibrioesaude/2020/05/bolsonaro-diz-que-novo-protocolo-sobre-cloroquina-sera-assinado-nesta-quarta-feira.shtml>.

Van Djick, J. (2013) Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zarocostas, J. (2020). How to fight an infodemic. The Lancet, World Report, 395(10225), 676, 29 de fevereiro de 2020. <https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS-0140-6736(20)30461-X/fulltext>.

Zurcher, A. (2020). Coronavirus: Who Trump supporters blame for virus ‘hysteria’. BBC News, 11 de março de 2020. <https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-51840227>.

Weterman, D. (2020). Após 100 mil mortes por covid-19, Bolsonaro lamenta óbitos ‘seja qual for a causa’. Estadão, 9 de agosto de 2020. <https://brasil.estadao.com.br/noticias/geral,apos-100-mil-mortes-por-covid-19-bolsonaro-lamenta-obitos-seja-qual-for-a-causa,70003393413>.

WHO. (2020). WHO Timeline – COVID-19. World Health Organization, 27 de abril de 2020.<https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19>. Worldometer. (2020). Covid-19 Coronavirus Pandemic. <https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/>.

At the moment of the article submission, it is required to the author(s) declare to agree with the conditions and norms of Political Observer - Revista Potuguesa de Ciência Política, as well as guaranteeing the inedited and original character of the text submitted to scientific evolution. Thus, the author(s) declare to accept the instructions and conditions of publication of the journal, sharing with this the author’s rights, respecting the duties of copyright and ceding to the journal the rights over the first publication of the text in its printed and digital version.

The partial or integral publication and sharing of the text (in institutional repositories, book chapters, periodical publications, social media and professional platforms in the areas of science and research, among others) determines the quotation of the initial publication in the journal and the hyperlinking to the website of Political Observer - Revista Potuguesa de Ciência Política, resorting, to that effect, to the available information in the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) system.

Political Observer incentives the sharing and distribution of the work published by the authors in the journal, raising the impact factors and the number of registered quotes, this way contributing to an open (https://www.ciencia-aberta.pt/) and accessible science (http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/portals-and-platforms/goap/open-science-movement/). Published works are under a Creative Commons License - Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International .

Licença Creative Commons